CCS Law and Policy:
the legal framework for carbon capture and storage
There is an expanding body of legal scholarship addressing the legal framework for carbon capture and storage which must address a diverse set of legal issues including at a minimum: real property (acquisition and management of storage sites, interaction with other subsurface interests, acquisition of rights of way for new CO2 pipelines); commercial transactions governing the acquisition, transfer, and pricing of CO2; regulation of CO2 pipelines under state or federal law; and state and federal environmental regulations governing well permitting, injection, monitoring, site closure and post-closure responsibility). Recent law review articles and policy analyses addressing such issues include the following:
· Owen L. Anderson, "Geologic CO2 Sequestration: Who Owns the Pore Space?", 9 Wyo L. Rev. 97, 97 (2009) (http://uwadmnweb.uwyo.edu/law/student_life/Vol_9_No_1/Anderson.pdf).
Prof. Anderson focuses on the subsurface property rights issues. The article provides a detailed review of the case law in the State of Texas and includes an appendix that provides a more summary review of the relevant subsurface law in a number of other jurisdictions.
· Victor B. Flatt, "Paving the Legal Path for Carbon Sequestration from Coal", 19 Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum 211, 218 (2009) (http://www.law.duke.edu/shell/cite.pl?19+Duke+Envtl.+L.+&+Pol%27y+F.+211+pdf).
Prof. Flatt's article includes discussion of a proposed draft of comprehensive federal legislation for carbon capture and storage.
· Delissa Hayano, “Guarding the Viability of Coal & Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Road Map for Wyoming’s Cradle to Grave Regulation of Geologic CO2 Sequestration”, 9 Wyo. L. Rev. 139 (2009)
Ms. Hayano reviews in detail the 2008 Wyoming CCS legislation (House Bills 89 and 90) and includes a brief state-by-state summary of legislation action.
· Donna Attanasio, "Surveying the Risks of Carbon Dioxide: Geological Sequestration and Storage Projects in the United States", 39 Env. L. Rptr. 10376, 10384 (May 2009) (reproduced with permission at:
(also available at:http://www.linexlegal.com/content.php?content_id=89831).
Ms. Attanasio, an experienced energy law practitioner and former President of the Energy Bar Association analyses the legal issues that must be addressed in developing a CCS project.
· Jennifer Johnson, "Legal and Regulatory Inventory for Carbon Capture and Storage & Analogues", prepared for the Midwest Governors Association (March 2009) (http://www.midwesterngovernors.org/Publications/Inventory.pdf).
Ms. Johnson of the Great Plains Institute compiled this state-by-state summary for the Midwest Governors Association.
· CCSReg Project, "Policy Brief: Regulating Carbon Dioxide Pipelines for the Purpose of Transporting Carbon Dioxide to Geologic Sequestration Sites" (July 13, 2009)
The CCSReg Project is an interdisciplinary project anchored in the Department of Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University and includes other project team members located at the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota, the Institute for Energy and the Environment at the Vermont Law School, and the Washington, DC law firm of Van Ness Feldman. This policy brief focuses on alternative approaches for regulating CO2 pipelines.
· William Leiss, O.C., PhD, FRSC, "Risk Management of Carbon Capture and Storage: Overview and Future Steps", (paper prepared for the Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment, and Economy (ISEEE) of the University of Calgary), (http://iseee.ca/files/iseee/LeissCCS-RMfinal.pdf).
Dr. Leiss examines risk management alternatives for carbon storage, seeking to anticipate some of the ways in which the risk management approach to carbon capture and storage is likely to unfold.
· Bruce E. Warner and Mark S. Shaffer, "Carbon Capture And Sequestration (CCS): A Pipedream Or A Real Business Opportunity For Gas Pipeline Developers? (May 2009) Vol. 236, No. 5.
Messrs. Warner and Shaffer review CCS from the practical standpoint of potential project developers.
· Robert R. Nordhaus and Emily Pitlick, "Carbon Dioxide Pipeline Regulation", 30 Energy L. J. 85 (2009) (http://www.eba-net.org/docs/elj301/85_-_nordhaus_and_pitlick.pdf).
The authors review the existing regulatory framework for CO2 pipelines and propose a potential federal regulatory framework that pipeline operators would be able to "opt-in" in order to gain a federal right of eminent domain.
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